ARTICLE

APOLOGIA FOR CONTEMPORARY FIGURATIVE PAINTING

Post-conceptual painting​ in a (post-)postmodern era

01.10.2020 - Julien Delagrange 

 

Marcel Broodthaers, Armoire blanche et table blanche, 1965. Painted furniture with eggshells - 86 x 82 x 62 cm & 104 x 100 x 40 cm. Courtesy of The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Michaël Borremans, The Egg IV, 2012.  Oil on canvas - 42 x 36 cm. Courtesy of Zeno X Gallery.

Foreword

 

Hence the main selected field of research by Contemporary art issue consists of contemporary representational - figurative - painting, focusing on the first decades of the 21st century, I found it of vital importance to write an introduction and state of the art for this particular fragment of contemporary art. In recent years, figurative painting has become increasingly visible. However, the notion of contemporary figurative painting remains often rather problematic in certain circuits. Further, one must be aware of possible pitfalls and misconceptions concerning contemporary representational painting. These misconceptions serve as an apologia, illustrating the necessity of written art theory concerning this selected field of research.

 

Even today, representational painting is still associated with, or seen as, a reactionary tendency in contemporary art. As a result, in some cases, it is even looked down upon. The medium and visual language of representational oil painting is labelled as traditional and obsolete - and thus, not an intellectual form of high art - even though the aesthetics are exclusively time-bound, contemporary, and the subject matter is closer to Joseph Kosuth (b. 1945) than to Claude Monet (1940-1926). At the same time, one must also be cautious and critical when dealing with contemporary painting. It is to say, representational painting is often - and wrongly - judged or admired solely for its skillfully rendered figurative imagery. A trick of magic by the painter, transforming pigments and turpentine into people, landscapes, animals, life. Ready to bite art, ripe to be consumed by a much wider audience. However, it must be made clear that today the usage of a figurative visual language is not a free agent to serious, good or successful painting. The premise or pretext of figuration does not perforce fulfill the outcome of relevant art. Even more, the figuration is often rather a casing, a vehicular language externalizing its concepts.

In this article, I shall argue the relevance and position of figurative painting in a post-conceptual and (post-)post-modern era, discussing common pitfalls on the notion of figuration, analyzing recent art historiography towards and pointing out key shifts and transitions in contemporary art, and therefore in painting. 

In retrospect

Throughout the 20th century, and in particular during the engaging post-war era, representational painting - and painting in general - had been pushed of its plinth. After the explosion of -isms during Modernism[1], postmodern art movements as Conceptual Art, Land Art, Arte Povera, Fluxus, Minimal Art, Happenings, Performance Art, Environmental Art and so on, continuously rewrote the definition of art, violently and ingeniously, leaving us wondering if there still was a place for painting, let alone for figurative oil painting - think of the iconic article by Douglas Crimp The End of Painting in 1981[2] in the context of the wider postmodern discourse in arts and literature. From an art historiographical point of view, these groundbreaking developments throughout the post-war era have indeed seem to have driven painting to the periphery of the art scene. When analyzing written art history concerning art since World War II, the debates are predominantly concerned about discussing and canonizing these new forms of art, and arguably losing sight of painting.[3]

 

 

 

 

 

Yet, from a retrospective point of view, one can still affirm the manifestation of figurative painting in the highest tiers of the art world, ascertaining that (representational) painting hasn't gone anywhere. Think of the Golden Lion award during the Venice Biennale of 2013 for Maria Lassnig's (1919-2014) captivating self-portraits, or leading galleries as Victoria Miro or Zeno X Gallery, both founded in the 80s, successfully championing figurative artists since their foundation, manifesting themselves as leading figures in the art world.[4] The museum institutes followed as well, by example the retrospectives at the Tate of Gerhard Richter (b. 1932) in 2011 or Richard Hamilton (1922-2011) in 2014. Or, the show 'Re: Painted' in 2014 in SMAK Ghent including the work of Michaël Borremans (b. 1963), Marlene Dumas (b. 1953) and Luc Tuymans (b. 1958).[5] The same case is valid concerning the auction houses. Think of the dazzling and record breaking sales of Untitled (1982) by Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960-1988) in 2017 ($ 110.5 million), Three studies of Lucian Freud (1969) by Francis Bacon (1909-1992) in 2013 ($ 142.4 million) or Portrait of an artist (Pool with two figures) (1972) in 2018 ($ 90.3 million), breaking the auction record for an artwork by a living artist, temporarily dethroning Jeff Koons (b. 1955) [see image above]. Further more, we can see a large number of publications arising concerning painting with the new millennium, such as Painting Today[6] and the Vitamin P series[7] by Phaidon, one of the leading publishers concerning art books. So it seems to be that figurative painting has found its way from the periphery back to the center of the art world. Yet, all too often I read statements as ‘the return of figuration’, ‘the rebirth of figurative painting’, or, ‘painters go back to figuration’. However, this so-called ‘return’ implies a reactionary movement. Even more, in the first place, it implies that figurative painting not only had been driven to the periphery, but had been abolished, excommunicated from high art. When reflecting on our recent art history, I must argue that to opposite seems to be true.

 

David Hockney in his studio working on Portrait of an artist (Pool with two figures), 1972. Acryl on canvas - 213.5 x 305 cm. Film still from A Bigger Splash (1974). Photo: Jack Hazan / Buzzy Enterprises Ltd. Artwork: © David Hockney 

[Note 1] N.b.: Used as a(n) (art-)historic period starting at the end of the 19th century until roughly the 1950s

[2] Crimp, Douglas. "The End of Painting." October 16 (1981): 69-86. Accessed June 19, 2020. doi:10.2307/778375.

[3] E.g.: The chronological overview of 20th century art in the reference publication Art since 1900 illustrates a significant relapse of important events since roughly 1960, concerning the traditional disciplines of visual in arts; painting, sculpture and drawing. See: Hal Foster, Rosalind E. Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois, B. H. D. Buchloch and David Joselit, Art since 1900 ; modernism, antimodernism, postmodernism. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2004.

[4] E.g.: Alice Neel (Victoria Miro), Peter Doig (Victoria Miro) or Luc Tuymans (Zeno X Gallery) and Marlene Dumas (Zeno X Gallery).

[5] Charlotte Mullins, Picturing people. (London: Thames and Huson, 2015), p. 6.

[6] Tony Godfrey, Painting Today. London: Phaidon, 2014.

[7] Barry Schwabsky, Vitamin P: New Perspectives in Painting. London: Phaidon, 2002 ; Barry Schwabsky, Vitamin P2: New Perspectives in Painting. London: Phaidon, 2016 ; Barry Schwabsky, Vitamin P3: New Perspectives in Painting. London: Phaidon, 2019.

 

Benjamin Katz, Gerhard Richter dans son atelier en train (sic) de réaliser "Die Kerze" (La bougie), Cologne, 1983. Photography - 40.4 x 30.5 cm. Courtesy of Musée d'Art Moderne de Paris and Benjamin Katz.

Throughout the 50s, 60s and 70s, in the sphere of influence of Pop Art, there was by example Sigmar Polke (1941-2010) and David Hockney (b. 1937), whom are - from a retrospective point of view -  highly influential for figurative painting today. What about Capitalist Realism in the 60s and 70s, represented again by the omnipresent Sigmar Polke, but also Martin Kippenberger (1953-1997), Neo Rauch (b.1960) or the ubiquitous Gerhard Richter [see image above]? Also since the 1960s, there was Photorealism with among others Chuck Close (b. 1940) or Rudolf Stingel (b. 1956). From the 70s Neo-Expressionism came about, the Neue Wilden in Germany, Figuration Libre in France, Transvanguardia in Italy and Bad Painting in the States. Painters such as Georg Baselitz (b. 1938), Anselm Kiefer (b. 1945), Markus Lüpertz (b. 1941), Jörg Immendorf (b. 1945), Remi Blanchard (b. 1958), François Boisrond (b. 1959), Francesco Clemente (b. 1952), Enzo Cucchi (b. 1949), Paula Rego (b. 1935), Philip Guston (1913-1980), Julian Schnabel (b. 1951), David Salle (b. 1952), Anselm Kiefer (b. 1945), Eric Fischl (b. 1948), Jean-Michel Basquiat and many more seemed to reinvigorate, or rather, emphasize the public's appetite for paint and a renewed interest for figuration in painting. Not to mention the School of London with today's so-called painter's-painters Lucian Freud (1922-2011), Francis Bacon, Frank Auerbach (b. 1931) and the aforementioned David Hockney.

I would also like to address the fragility of this recital of rigid art movements. Since the dawn of modern art historiography, we have  tried to canonize every painter, style and period into terms, definitions, movements and schools. However, when reviewing these labels and the painting itself, one can only conclude they are artificial, contrived and in the end even trivial. By example, Eric Fischl is canonized as an American Neo-expressionist painter. But in reality, his work is much closer to Lucian Freud or Alex Katz (b. 1927) than to Jean-Michel Basquiat or Georg Baselitz from a visual point of view. This ridiculous amount of -isms in recent art history and in contemporary art can be driven to a point it becomes pure idiocy. Our inclination to label every phenomena or niche in painting is in some cases pointless. In the end, all these -isms in painting can and will be brought together under a so-called container concept, probably postmodern painting or postmodern art in general. By example, a sumptuous still life by Frans Snyders (1579-1657) could not be more different than a religious altarpiece in the spirit of the counter reformation by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). Yet, both are baroque painting. We can distinguish these paintings by discussing their characteristics roughly giving them different places according genre, style, subject matter and in some cases their specific niche. Nevertheless, these -isms do allow us the discuss the development of painting within a certain framework.

 

Today, we can see numerous attempts to label the different waves in today's figurative painting. In my opinion, very rarely in a satisfying manner. The terminology for the figurative aspect of these waves in painting is hereby often questionable. Not only is the often used term Realism of a problematic nature - due to it's historic predecessor in the 19th century, referring to the subject matter of the paintings, the raw reality of life - and not the visual aspect of 'realistic' painting - even more, I think it is unnecessary to address the representational aspect in every -ism. Further, since the invention of abstract painting, people are trumpeting there is a new movement combining figuration with abstraction, as if they reinvented the wheel. This is simply a non debate. Abstraction has always been around, hence when painting, you always manipulate and abstraction finds it's way into the painting. This dichotomy of figuration versus abstraction is a very common fallacy and misconception one needs to be aware of. By example, the impressionists in 19th century France combined abstraction and figuration in a way similar many contemporary painters do today. Therefore, attempts as abstracted realism, figurative abstraction and so on can never be considered as a new movement, at best it can be seen as a characteristic of a certain artist or painting.

Painting in a (post-)postmodern era

The aforementioned discourse of postmodernism has had an enormous impact on the way we see the world, our attitude towards the truth, and so it did on art. I am convinced it is crucial to understand the epistemological shifts of this transition, to be able to approach representational painting and contemporary art in an adequate manner. One could therefore argue the persistent - almost obstinate - legacy of modernism and modernist thinking as a part of our art historical practice and its lasting influence on the public opinion resulting in a discrepancy of a modernist approach towards art in a (post-)postmodern era.[8] Therefore, it is necessary to stand still and discuss this cultural paradigm and analyze its effect on artistic practices.

 

One could find an explanation for the aforementioned misconception in the public opinion concerning contemporary figurative painting as a reactionary and obsolete tendency in contemporary art in this discrepancy of modernist thinking in a postmodern era. Think of the characteristic underlying principles of modern art, such as the rejection of history and tradition, abolishing any conservatism and focusing on innovation, resulting in abstraction and new media. Modernism was based on idealism, an utopian vision on life and an almost dogmatic belief in reason and (teleological) progress.[9] On the other hand, postmodernism is based upon scepticism and a suspicion of reason, a radical ontological and epistemological doubt challenging the notion of universal truth(s). While Modernism emphasized the importance of the material, innovative techniques and clarity, postmodernism is characterized by the individual experience and interpretation, as well as irony and complexity of often contradictory layers of meaning. Further, the definition of art is contested, fading the distinction of high art and low or popular (mass-)culture, introducing appropriation and eclecticism, breaking the formal conventions of art and questioning the establishment.[10]

What about the end of Postmodernism? The so-called Post-postmodern era and in what manner does it manifest itself in painting? Although there is no consensus on this matter, in arts and literature, one is able to notice a shift in the nature of the 'applied' postmodernism. A common theme in the attempts to define Post-postmodernism can be found in the emerging of faith, trust, dialogue, performance and sincerity to transcend the postmodern irony.[11] As well, in painting, we can notice the increased importance of existentialism and absurdism at the expense of irony and the mixing of high and low art. One could argue - in arts, literature and philosophy - postmodernism ends where the irony is transcended. Since the new millennium, we notice an increased amount of paintings and artists whom effectuate this post-postmodern tendency resulting in melancholic and existential images. This existential discourse, often accompanied by a certain mood, a darkness and an important place for (neo-)surrealism, seems to arise without the postmodern irony or cynicism. Although there is still a sense of humor, the humor is more dark and in some cases sick humor.

 

Since postmodernism and with the new millenium, there seems to be a significant shift of innovation to the concept, from physical matter to subject matter, from the object to the image. Also, the mixture of high and low art seems to become less important, hence it is no longer the aim to be an iconoclast or to innovate for the sake of innovation. Synthesis, sincerity and painting as the privileged actor intent to reconstruct continuity in an era where there are no truths, but make an opening several truths in the individual experience. There is also a new place for the spiritual and the ethereal. As if the teleological view of secularization has been hollowed out, leaving us alienated, resulting in a reorientation of our nature and intuitive sense of transcendence and spirituality versus science, the demystified world and secularism. From an anthropological point of view, this alienation of our nature, is one of the main themes in contemporary art, often referred to as an investigation of the human condition. What does it mean to be (a) human today?

 

Eric Fischl, Reflection I; Why, 1995. Oil on linen - 173 x 147 cm. Courtesy of the artist.

 

Georg Baselitz, Portrait laid, 1987. Oil on panel - 90 x 71 cm. Courtesy of Opera Gallery.

 

Marcel Broodthaers, Armoire blanche et table blanche, 1965. Painted furniture with eggshells - 86 x 82 x 62 cm & 104 x 100 x 40 cm. Courtesy of The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

 

Michaël Borremans, The Egg IV, 2012.  Oil on canvas - 42 x 36 cm. Courtesy of Zeno X Gallery.

As stated in the introduction, today's (relevant) representational painting is in subject matter closer to Kosuth than to Monet. By example, the postmodern movements have indeed changed the semiotics in art radically. A culmination point for this often linguistic game of the signified and the signifier in art can be found in Conceptual Art. At first, from a visual point of view, one might argue Conceptual Art and figurative painting today are completely different, one might even say, opposites. However, the semiotics of a painting by Michaël Borremans are much more alike to a work by Marcel Broodthaers (1924-1976) than to, by instance, Borremans' baroque painting teacher Diego Velázquez (1599-1660) [see images above]. Thus, Borremans' paintings are not at all reactionary, yet they are in fact strongly Post-Conceptual. From a dialectic perspective, Post-Conceptualism is not a counter reaction or an end to Conceptual Art, it is rather a synthesis of new developments, building upon the legacy of Conceptual Art in which the concept - the idea - is the main concern of the artwork.[12] Beside Conceptual Art, other art movements characteristic for the post-war and postmodern era have a strong influence on today's most relevant figurative painters. Think of Performance Art when Nicola Samorí (b. 1977) violently mutilates the surface of his old master inspired portraits.

Technological events

​​As the world is changing, so does art. Throughout the 20th century, technology has had a pronounced direct and an indirect impact on painting. A recital of the most important developments with a direct impact on painting would include the development of photography, film and cinema, the invention of the computer, Paintbox and Photoshop and the development of the projector. Since the new millennium, this recital of technological events mentioned above seem to have culminated into our 21st century aesthetics and imaging.

Although photography was invented in ... it was truely discovered by painting in... Zie documents on contemporary art painting introductie.

Indirect impact ook opsommen en zo brug maken naar shifts and events volgende hoofdstuk

as - most often - time bound aesthetics characteristic for the 21st century.

Political-ideological shifts and events

Beside art specific postmodern influences, one must also be aware of certain events functioning as a catalyst throughout this epistemological shift. By example, identity politics have had a an enormous impact on contemporary painting.

A common ground in today's figurative painting

 

Belang bewegingen, technologie en events, feminisme, zwarten, klimaat, veganisme, identity politics, de val van de muur, hiroshima, terrorisme en vooral 9/11, kernwapens, fotografie, film, projector, paintbox tot photoshop, uitvinding world wide web, social media, globalisering democratisering en internationalisering van kunst, 

 

Belang postmoderne concepten: simulacra, overvloed van beelden, fin des grand récits, alles is dood waaronder de kunst en schilderkunst in het bijzonder, appropriatie en copyright wars, 

 

Post-postmodernisme begint waar de ironie wordt overstegen? 

Zie de geschriften!!! Dezelfde tendens in de schilderkunst:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-postmodernism 

https://www.the-tls.co.uk/articles/postmodernism-dead-comes-next/ 

 

Political-Ideological shifts and events

   

Environmentalism 

 

    Identity politics

    Maria Lassnig, Jenny Saville, David Hockney, Nicole Eisenman, Kerry James Marshall, Kehinde Wiley, Lynette, Yiadom-Boakye,

 

    The Berlin Wall       

    Savu, Suciu, Ghenie, Sasnal

 

    Hiroshima

 

    9/11

 

Technology and painting

 

    Photography

Gerhard Richter, Eric Fischl, Borremans, 

 

    Film and cinema

 

    Paintbox and photoshop

    Glen Brown!

 

    Projector

 

    The world wide web (image stock)

    Tuymans, Sasnal

 

    Social media

 

Epistemological issues and events: (Post-)(Post-)Modernism

 

    The legacy of Modernism

 

    The paradigm shift of Postmodernism

 

    The turns

 

    Simulacra, the distrust towards images, the abundance of images 

    Tuymans, Sasnal

 

    Appropriation

    Glenn Brown, Mark Alexander,

 

An anthology of concepts

The selected research field consists of a specific movement in 21st century painting, marked by a figurative visual language, but above all, embodying today's Zeitgeist. As a matter of fact, beside a figurative imagery, one also notices a number of recurring concepts.

 

Melancholy, existentialism, the human condition, Sehnsucht, Weltschmerz, Sodade, power, paranoia, iconicity, simulacra, identity and gender politics, environmentalism, post-conceptual painting, postmodernism, (neo-)surrealism, (direct) references or influences of old masters, 21st century aesthetics, painterly tradition, eclecticism, new technologies, globalization and a flood of images.

 

An anthology of concepts functioning as a continuum throughout contemporary representational painting. Working all at once or individually, in search for them or in some cases repelled. The recital of these concepts in the form of text may seem abstract, vague or inaccessible. But when being confronted with a selection of these paintings, one is immediately aware of a common ground in today's painting. Consciously, intuitively, or even unknowingly. Separate actors, painters, working independently and obtaining a similar imagery and subject matter. According to the logic of induction, one is able to ascertain the manifestation of a trend, an art historic phenomenon in painting.

One could argue, this movement and its abounding facets still is unexplored terrain. Indeed, in the case, art scientific research faces an immense range of unexamined topics, phenomenons, strategies, groups of painters, aspects of added cultural and art historic value, but also possible misconceptions and issues within this movement. Therefore, there is a certain need for written art criticism concerning this niche. As always, new trends or movements in art history consist of many possible pitfalls for the viewer, the collector and even for the artist. In this particular case, with figurative painting, there are several urgent issues and misconceptions I wish to address.

Edited and written by Julien Delagrange

Notes:

[1] N.b.: Used as a(n) (art-)historic period starting at the end of the 19th century until roughly the 1950s

[2] Crimp, Douglas. "The End of Painting." October 16 (1981): 69-86. Accessed June 19, 2020. doi:10.2307/778375.

[3] E.g.: The chronological overview of 20th century art in the reference publication Art since 1900 illustrates a significant relapse of important events since roughly 1960, concerning the traditional disciplines of visual in arts; painting, sculpture and drawing. See: Hal Foster, Rosalind E. Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois, B. H. D. Buchloch and David Joselit, Art since 1900 ; modernism, antimodernism, postmodernism. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2004.

[4] E.g.: Alice Neel (Victoria Miro), Peter Doig (Victoria Miro) or Luc Tuymans (Zeno X Gallery) and Marlene Dumas (Zeno X Gallery).

[5] Charlotte Mullins, Picturing people. (London: Thames and Huson, 2015), p. 6.

[6] Tony Godfrey, Painting Today. London: Phaidon, 2014.

[7] Barry Schwabsky, Vitamin P: New Perspectives in Painting. London: Phaidon, 2002 ; Barry Schwabsky, Vitamin P2: New Perspectives in Painting. London: Phaidon, 2016 ; Barry Schwabsky, Vitamin P3: New Perspectives in Painting. London: Phaidon, 2019.

[8] N.b.: By the end of the 20th century, scholars, historians, artists and critics have declared the end of postmodernism, following the current era most often referred to as post-postmodernism, metamodernism or trans-postmodernism. S.n.: So far there is no consensus concerning the end of postmodernism, nor is there no mainstream usage of the aforementioned names to define the current era.

[9]Tate, Art Term : Modernism at https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/m/modernism, consulted 26/06/2020.

[10] Tate, Art Term : Postodernism at https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/p/postmodernism, consulted 26/06/2020.

[11] Garry Potter Garry and Jose Lopez, After Postmodernism: An Introduction to Critical Realism (London: The Athlone Press 2001), p. 4.

[12] Peter Osborne, Conceptual Art: Themes and movements (Phaidon, London, 2002), p. 28.

Selected bibliography:

Barry Schwabsky, Vitamin P: New Perspectives in Painting. London: Phaidon, 2002.

Barry Schwabsky, Vitamin P2: New Perspectives in Painting. London: Phaidon, 2016.

Barry Schwabsky, Vitamin P3: New Perspectives in Painting. London: Phaidon, 2019.

Charlotte Mullins, Picturing people. London: Thames and Huson, 2015.

Crimp, Douglas. "The End of Painting." October 16 (1981): 69-86. Accessed June 19, 2020. doi:10.2307/778375.

Garry Potter Garry and Jose Lopez, After Postmodernism: An Introduction to Critical Realism. London: The Athlone Press, 2001.

Hal Foster, Rosalind E. Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois, B. H. D. Buchloch and David Joselit, Art since 1900 ; modernism, antimodernism, postmodernism. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2004.

Peter Osborne, Conceptual Art: Themes and movements, Phaidon, London, 2002.

Tony Godfrey, Painting Today. London: Phaidon, 2014.

List of illustrations:

David Hockney in his studio working on Portrait of an artist (Pool with two figures), 1972. Acryl on canvas - 213.5 x 305 cm. Film still from A Bigger Splash (1974). Photo: Jack Hazan / Buzzy Enterprises Ltd. Artwork: © David Hockney 

Benjamin Katz, Gerhard Richter dans son atelier en train (sic) de réaliser "Die Kerze" (La bougie), Cologne, 1983. Photography - 40.4 x 30.5 cm. Courtesy of Musée d'Art Moderne de Paris and Benjamin Katz.

Eric Fischl, Reflection I; Why, 1995. Oil on linen - 173 x 147 cm. Courtesy of the artist.

Georg Baselitz, Portrait laid, 1987. Oil on panel - 90 x 71 cm. Courtesy of Opera Gallery.

Marcel Broodthaers, Armoire blanche et table blanche, 1965. Painted furniture with eggshells - 86 x 82 x 62 cm & 104 x 100 x 40 cm. Courtesy of The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Michaël Borremans, The Egg IV, 2012.  Oil on canvas - 42 x 36 cm. Courtesy of Zeno X Gallery.

[8] N.b.: By the end of the 20th century, scholars, historians, artists and critics have declared the end of postmodernism, following the current era most often referred to as post-postmodernism, metamodernism or trans-postmodernism. S.n.: So far there is no consensus concerning the end of postmodernism, nor is there no mainstream usage of the aforementioned names to define the current era.

[9]Tate, Art Term : Modernism at https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/m/modernism, consulted 26/06/2020.

[10] Tate, Art Term : Postodernism at https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/p/postmodernism, consulted 26/06/2020.

[11] Garry Potter Garry and Jose Lopez, After Postmodernism: An Introduction to Critical Realism (London: The Athlone Press 2001), p. 4.

[12] Peter Osborne, Conceptual Art: Themes and movements (Phaidon, London, 2002), p. 28.

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